You'll find just about everything you need to know to have a Great BBQ Party
Practical info on the equipment recommended for hiking and the dangers that can be encountered
Some good camping advice plus a rundown on commonly used camping equipment
What you need to know about cameras, lenses and photographing the great outdoors
Thinking of sliding down some snow-covered slopes this winter? Then check out these skiing tips
It can be fun... and it can be dangerous! - Advice on Rafting and the equipment needed to do so
Whether its family-oriented or an intimate occasion… Here’s some helpful information
Planning on going fishing? Whether it's for pleasure or competition - here’s some tips
Looking for some great places to explore? Check out these fascinating destinations
Helpful information on the Gear you’ll need to take… and some important Safety Advice
Here's some rock solid information on what can turn out to be a very dangerous sport
We've got some useful information on rollerblades... and various skating techniques
The grill is the heart of any great barbecue. While grills come in all shapes and sizes and every backyard chef has their preference between gas and charcoal, the tools you need are all the same.
An investment in a good set of barbecue tools can last for years. Ensure that you have a stainless steel spatula, tongs, and a grilling fork that can stand up to the heat. A basting brush will also come in handy, as will a flame-resistant glove and an apron. Don't forget the extra gas or charcoal for the grill, either!
A good supply of drinks will keep everyone cool and refreshed. There are many beverages that are ideal for a backyard cookout, so you're sure to find something for everyone. Offer a variety of nonalcoholic drinks for kids and guests who don't drink alcohol. The most important drink, especially if it's a hot day, is water. Be sure to have plenty in stock so everyone can stay hydrated.
Fruit punches are perfect for a summer cookout and a pitcher of homemade lemonade is always a hit. You can also offer other fun recipes like the sparkling cranberry punch or the cardinal punch.
Drinks for Adults
Filling the cooler with ice-cold beer is a barbecue tradition. While you can pick up a case of your trusted go-to brand, there are many fantastic beers to explore. Pairing barbecued foods with wine is another adventure that can keep you busy all summer. It's fun to discover the "rules" of finding a great cookout wine and you'll often find that inexpensive red wines are the best picks.
You can also show off your bartending skills and there are many fun cookout-worthy cocktails. They're typically easy to mix and play up the freshest fruits of the summer.
Condiments and Sauces
From the marinade for a steak to fixings for your burgers, it's the little things that make your food better. The condiments, spices, and sauces needed for a barbecue are going to depend on what you're cooking, though there are some staples you won't want to forget.
While there are many great barbecue sauces available at the store, you may want to make your own. Most barbecue sauce recipes are easy and can give your grilled meat a custom touch.
Meats, Sides, and Desserts
The menu for a barbecue can be as complex or simple as you want to make it. You can go with old-fashioned staples or show off your culinary prowess. Have fun with this part because it's the focus of the entire day.
Many delicious foods are perfect for the grill. While meat is often the first choice, there are a number of vegetarian options as well. Choose one or two mains to feature and save the other ideas for the next cookout.
No matter which you choose, it's all about the seasoning. Also, be sure to review proper grilling technique and cooking times to ensure everything's done to perfection.
Be sure to serve a couple of side dishes at your cookout. They can feature the best produce of the summer season and many cold salads can be prepared ahead of time. Some of these are great appetizers while you're waiting for the grill, too.
Let's not forget about dessert. Though the grill may get all the attention, your cookout desserts finish off the party perfectly. Cool Dessert suggestions for Hot Days: Red, White, and Blue Ice Cream - Gluten-Free Cookout Desserts.
Your picnic table will be the hub for all the action. Dress it up with fun decorations or keep it simple and functional. Either way, there are a few things you'll definitely need.
For tableware, it's easy to pick up disposable plates, utensils, and cups. They make clean up very easy because everything's tossed in the trash when you're done.
If you'd like to be more environmentally friendly, pick up reusable outdoor table setting supplies. You'll need to clean them after each party, but they tend to be affordable and durable enough to get you through a year or two of cookouts.
Hiking, as you probably know, is basically a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails or footpaths in the countryside. The equipment required for hiking depends on a variety of factors, including local climate. Day hikers often carry water, food, a map, and rain-proof gear. Hikers have traditionally worn sturdy hiking boots for stability over rough terrain. In recent decades this has become less common as some long-distance hikers have switched to trail running shoes. Boots are still commonly used in mountainous terrain.
The Mountaineers club recommends a list of "Ten Essentials" equipment for hiking, including a compass, sunglasses, sunscreen, a flashlight, a first aid kit, a fire starter, and a knife. Other groups recommend items such as hat, gloves, insect repellent, and an emergency blanket. A GPS navigation device can also be helpful and route cards may be used as a guide. Trekking poles are also recommended, especially when carrying a heavy backpack. Winter hiking requires a higher level of skill and generally more specialized gear than in other seasons.
Proponents of ultralight backpacking argue that long lists of required items for multi-day hikes increases pack weight, and hence fatigue and the chance of injury. Instead, they recommend reducing pack weight, in order to make hiking long distances easier. Even the use of hiking boots on long-distances hikes is controversial among ultralight hikers, because of their weight.
Various organizations recommend that hikers generally avoid making loud sounds, such as shouting or loud conversation, playing music, or the use of mobile phones. However, in bear country, hikers use intentional noise-making as a safety precaution to avoid startling bears. Hikers are advised not to feed wild animals, because they will become a danger to other hikers if they become habituated to human food, and may have to be killed, or relocated.
Hiking can be hazardous because of terrain, inclement weather, becoming lost, or pre-existing medical conditions. The dangerous circumstances hikers can face include specific accidents or physical ailments. It is especially hazardous in high mountains, crossing rivers and glaciers, and when there is snow and ice. At times hiking may involve scrambling, as well as the use of ropes, ice axes and crampons and the skill to properly use them.
Camping describes a range of activities and approaches to outdoor accommodation. Survivalist and wild campers typically set off with as little as possible to get by, whereas some campers and recreational vehicle travelers arrive at a campsite or campground equipped with camping gear designed to provide comfort, including their own power and heat sources as well as camping furniture. Camping may be combined with hiking, as in backpacking, and is often enjoyed in conjunction with other outdoor activities such as canoeing, climbing, fishing, and hunting.
Different types of camping may be named after their form of transportation, such as with Canoe camping, car camping, RVing, and backpacking, which can involve ultralight gear.
The following is a list of commonly used camping equipment:
Campers span a broad range of age, ability, and ruggedness, and campsites are designed in many ways as well. Many campgrounds have sites with facilities such as fire rings, barbecue grills, utilities, shared bathrooms and laundry, as well as access to nearby recreational facilities, however, not all campsites have similar levels of development. Campsites can range from a patch of dirt, to a level, paved pad with sewer and electricity with many public and private campgrounds also offering cabin options.
Amateur photographers take photos for personal use, as a hobby or out of casual interest, rather than as a business or job. The quality amateur work can be comparable to that of many professionals. Amateurs can fill a gap in subjects or topics that might not otherwise be photographed if they are not commercially useful or salable. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera but nowadays social media and near-ubiquitous camera phones have made photographic and video recording pervasive in everyday life.
In the mid-2010s smartphone cameras added numerous automatic assistance features like color management, autofocus face detection and image stabilization that significantly decreased skill and effort needed to take high quality images.
Landscape photography commonly involves daylight photography of natural features of land, sky and waters, at a distance—though some landscapes may involve subjects in a scenic setting nearby, even close-up, and sometimes at night. Photography of artificial scenery, such as farm fields, orchards, gardens and architecture, may be considered "landscape" photography as well. Even the presence of man-made structures (buildings, roads and bridges, etc.) or art (such as sculpture) may be considered "landscape" if presented in artistic settings or appearing (or photographed) in artistic style.
However, landscape photography often overlaps the activity of wildlife photography and the two terms are used somewhat interchangeably; both wildlife and landscapes may be elements of the same picture or body of work.
For "wide open spaces," a wide-angle lens is generally the preferred lens, allowing a broad angle of view. However, medium-range to telephoto lenses can achieve satisfying imagery, as well, and can enable the capture of detailed scenery of smaller areas at greater distances. Telephoto lenses can also facilitate limited ranges of focus, to enable the photographer to emphasize a specific area, at a fairly specific distance, in sharp focus, with the foreground and background blurred. A big difference between a wide-angles lens and a telephoto lens is the compression of the landscape; the wider the angle the more distance will appear between the foreground and background elements; however, a telephoto lens will make the same elements appear closer to each other. Other lenses that can help include the fisheye lens for extremely wide angles and dramatic effect, and the macro/micro lens for extreme close-up work. While variable-range zoom lenses are widely used, some landscape photographers prefer fixed-range prime lenses to provide higher clarity and quality in the image.
Rafting and whitewater rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is often done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk is often a part of the experience.
This activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet (3.0 m) to 14 feet (4.3 m) rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars.
Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport and can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is also a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations.
Rafting equipment has continuously evolved and developed significantly from old rubber WW II era military surplus rafts. Modern whitewater rafts are typically made with advanced nylon or Kevlar infused plastics like PVC or urethane; though many of the more entry-level low-cost manufacturers still use a glued rubber. Plastic is generally more durable, longer-lasting, and just as easy to repair compared to older rubber rafts.
Paddles and oars are the typical means of propulsion for rafts and come in many sizes and varieties with specific river conditions in mind.
Paddles are a combination of layered wood, plastic, aluminium, carbon fiber, or other advanced composites. There are many types and combinations of these materials with lower-end entry-level paddles being composed of cheap aluminum and plastic. Higher-end models are constructed of high-end composites and mostly utilized by professional rafting guides, raft racers, and expedition paddlers.
Paddles are typically utilized by rafters in smaller and lower volume rivers where rocks and other hazards can damage larger oars. Paddles are typically used by guests on commercial trips as well since it is seen as a more engaging way to enjoy the river trip. When paddles are used in a raft it is referred to as "paddling" or "paddle guiding"
Oars are commonly made from the same materials as paddles. Wood, plastic, aluminum, and carbon fiber. Oars are designed for several different rivers with slightly different blade shapes built to handle varying river conditions. Wooden oars are typically built as one solid piece to help retain strength and resilience of the oar while it is strained under a load. Composite or metallic oars typically are made in 3 parts: Blade, Shaft and Grip
Oars are generally used on wider flatter rivers of higher volume to facilitate moving more efficiently across long slow-moving pools, though anglers will often use shorter oars on smaller rafts in low volume rivers to help them maintain an advantageous upstream position while anglers cast from the raft. When a raft utilizes oars it is called "rowing" though many people typically incorrectly refer to this as "oaring" or "oar framing", however, these terms are incorrect and often suggest inexperience when used in conversation with members of the rafting community. Oars typically use one of 2 systems to attach to the boat, but in either case, they interface with the boat through a large metallic frame strapped to the boat called an "oar frame". Oars connect to the frame by either a pin and clip system or a system called oarlocks. Either system connects to the frame via oar towers on either side of the frame.
Pins and clips
Pins are referred to as "thole pins" or "oar pins". A large metal clip attaches to the oar and clips onto the pin. The top of the pin has a rubber or plastic stopper that prevents the oar from slipping over the top of the pin. The bottom of the pin connects to an oar tower designed to hold the pin in place. This system is an older system though it is useful for certain types of river running namely big, dangerous Class 5 rivers that require your oars to stay in place as much as possible.
Oarlocks or locks are a more common form of attachment for oars as they allow the rower to "feather" the oar back and forth as they row making it easier on the person using the oars to continue downstream. Oarlocks look like a pin topped with a U-shaped metal flange. The oars slide into the gap between the U-shaped metal pieces and can be held in place with a plastic stopper called an oarlock. The oarlock allows the oar to maintain its position on the oar at a correct length for rowing.
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping), which use skis with free-heel bindings. Whether for recreation or for sport, it is typically practiced at ski resorts, which provide such services as ski lifts, artificial snow making, snow grooming, restaurants, and ski patrol.
Modern alpine skis are shaped to enable carve turning, and have evolved significantly since the 1980s, with variants such as powder skis, freestyle skis, all-mountain skis, kid's skis and more.
The binding is a device used to connect the skier's boot to the ski. The purpose of the binding is to allow the skier to stay connected to the ski, but if the skier falls the binding can safely release them from the ski to prevent injury. There are two types of bindings: the heel and toe system (step in) and the plate system binding.
Ski boots are one of the most important accessories to skiing. They connect the skier to the skis, allowing them full control over the ski. When ski boots first came about they were made of leather and laces were used. The leather ski boots started off as low cut, but gradually became taller as injuries became more common allowing for more ankle support. Eventually the tied laces were replaced with buckles and the leather boots were replaced with plastic. This allowed the bindings to be much more closely matched to the fit of the boot, and offer dramatically improved performance. The new plastic model contained two parts of the boots: inner boot and outer shell. The inner part of the boot (also called the liner) is the cushioning part of the boot and contains a footbed along with a cushion to keep a skier's foot warm and comfortable. The outer shell is the part of the boot that is made of plastic and contains the buckles. Most ski boots contain a strap at shin level to allow for extra strength when tightening the boots
The purpose of ski helmets are to reduce the chances of getting a head injury while skiing. Ski helmets also help to provide warmth to the head since they consist of an inner liner that traps warmth. Helmets are available in many styles, and typically consist of a hard plastic/resin shell with inner padding. Modern ski helmets may include many additional features such as vents, earmuffs, headphones, goggle mounts, and camera mounts.
The protective gear used in alpine skiing includes: mouth guards, shin guards, chin guards, arm guards, back protectors, pole guards, and padding. Mouth guards are used in the mouth in order to reduce the effects of a concussion and protect the teeth of the athlete. Shin guards, pole guards, arm guards and chin guards are mainly used in slalom skiing in order to protect the body parts having impact with the gates. Back protectors and padding, also known as stealth, is worn for giant slalom and other speed events in order to better protect the body if an athlete were to have an accident at high speeds.
A picnic, as you probably know is a meal taken outdoors as part of an excursion, especially in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theater performance, and usually in summer. Picnics are usually meant for the late mornings or midday, but could also be held later in the day.
Picnics are often family-oriented but can also be an intimate occasion between two people or a large get-together such as company picnics and church picnics or clubs and community get togethers or of community care units. It is also sometimes combined with a cookout, usually a form of barbecue: either grilling (griddling, gridironing, or charbroiling), braising (by combining a charbroil or gridiron grill with a broth-filled pot), baking, or a combination of all of the above.
On romantic and family picnics, a picnic basket and a blanket (to sit or recline on) are usually brought along. Outdoor games or some other form of entertainment are common at large picnics. In established public parks, a picnic area generally includes picnic tables and possibly other items related to eating outdoors, such as built-in grills, water faucets, garbage containers, and restrooms.
Some picnics are a potluck, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table for all to share. When the picnic is not also a cookout, the food eaten is rarely hot, instead taking the form of deli sandwiches, finger food, fresh fruit, salad, cold meats and accompanied by chilled wine or champagne or soft drinks
Potluck dinners are events where the attendees bring a dish to a meal. Potluck dinners are often organized by religious or community groups, since they simplify the meal planning and distribute the costs among the participants. Smaller, more informal get-togethers with distributed food preparation may also be called potlucks. The only traditional rule is that each dish be large enough to be shared among a good portion (but not necessarily all) of the anticipated guests. In some cases each participant agrees ahead of time to bring a single course, and the result is a multi-course meal. This agreement rectifies the problem of many participants bringing the same dish. Guests may bring in any form of food, ranging from the main course to desserts.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition. It can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is professional fishing for profit; or subsistence fishing, which is fishing for survival.
The most common form of recreational fishing is angling, which is done with a rig of rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits, collectively referred to as terminal tackles. Other devices are also used to affect or complement the presentation of the bait to the targeted fish, such as weights, floats, swivels and method feeders. Lures are frequently used in place of fresh bait when fishing for predatory fishes. Some hobbyists hand-make tackles themselves, including plastic lures and artificial flies.
Other forms of recreational fishing include spearfishing, which is done with a speargun or harpoon while diving; and bowfishing, with is done from above the water with archery equipments such as a compound bow or a crossbow.
Big-game fishing is conducted from yachts to catch large open-water fish species such as tunas, billfishes (e.g. marlins) and sharks. Noodling and trout tickling are also recreational activities.
Sport fishing methods vary according to the area fished, the species targeted, the personal strategies of the angler, and the resources available. It ranges from the aristocratic art of fly fishing elaborated in Great Britain to the high-tech methods used to chase marlin and tuna. Sport fishing is usually done with hook, line, rod and reel rather than with nets or other aids. Among the most common offshore salt water game fish are marlin, tuna, sailfish, shark, and mackerel.
In North America, freshwater fish include trout, bass, pike, catfish, walleye and muskellunge. The smallest fish are called panfish, because they can fit whole in a normal cooking pan. Examples are perch and sunfish (Centrarchidae).
In the past, sport fishers, even if they did not eat their catch, almost always killed them to bring them to shore to be weighed or for preservation as trophies. In order to protect recreational fisheries, sport fishermen now often catch and release, and sometimes tag and release, which involves fitting the fish with identity tags, recording vital statistics, and sending a record to a government agency.
Recreational fishing techniques include hand gathering, bowfishing, spearfishing, netting, angling, and trapping.
Most recreational fishers use a fishing rod with a fishing line and a hook at the end of the line. The rod may be equipped with a reel so the line can be reeled in, and some form of bait or a lure attached to the hook. Fly fishing is a special form of rod fishing in which the reel is attached to the back end of the rod, and heavy line is cast with a complex, repetitive whipping motion to deliver the ultra light artificial fly to its target. Another less common technique is bowfishing using a bow or a crossbow. The "arrow" is a modified bolt with barbs at the tip, connected to a fishing line so the fish can be retrieved. Some crossbows are fitted with a reel.
The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on knowledge about the fish and their behavior including migration, foraging, and habitat. Although there is certainly an element of "luck" to fishing, a recent science-based synthesis article reveals that fish capture is a complex function of three interdependent key processes: an individual fish's internal state, its encounter with the gear, and the characteristics of the encountered gear
Fishing tackle is the equipment used by fishers. Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels, baits, lures, arrows, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes. Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle. This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders, swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. The line, hook, bait and other fishing tackle arranged together form a fishing rig.
Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is used when fishing.
Rules and regulations
Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught. The International Game Fish Association (IGFA) makes and oversees a set of voluntary guidelines. Typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. Enforceable regulations are put in place by governments to ensure sustainable practice amongst anglers. In many places they have their rules in an "anglers' handbook". Each year the handbook is updated and new rules such as catch and release, areas to fish and limits on fish can be found.
Recreational fishing competitions (tournaments) are a recent innovation in which fishermen compete for prizes based on the total weight of a given species of fish caught within a predetermined time. This sport evolved from local fishing contests into large competitive circuits, especially in North America. Competitors are most often professional fishermen who are supported by commercial endorsements. Other competitions are based purely on length with mandatory catch and release. Either longest fish or total length is documented with a camera and a mandatory sticker or unique item, a practice used since it is hard to weigh a living fish accurately in a boat.
Sport fishing competitions involve individuals if the fishing occurs from land, and usually teams if conducted from boats, as well as specified times and areas for catching fish. A score is awarded for each fish caught. The points awarded depend on the fish's weight and species. Occasionally a score is divided by the strength of the fishing line used, yielding more points to those who use thinner, weaker line. In tag and release competitions, a flat score is awarded per fish species caught, divided by the line strength. Usually sport fishing competitions award a prize to the boat or team with the most points earned.
Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day. It is often, but not always, an extended journey and may or may not involve camping outdoors. The gear a backpacker will likely carry includes food, water, bedding, shelter, clothing, stove, and cooking kit.
Given that backpackers must carry their gear, the total weight of their bag and its contents is a primary concern of backpackers. Backpacking trips range from one night to weeks or months, sometimes aided by planned resupply points or drops.
Backpacking camps are usually more spartan than campsites where gear is transported by car or boat. In areas with heavy backpacker traffic, a hike-in campsite might have a fire ring (where permissible), an outhouse, a wooden bulletin board with a map and information about the trail and area. Many hike-in camps are no more than level patches of ground free of underbrush. In remote wilderness areas hikers must choose their own site. Established camps are rare and the ethos is to "leave no trace" when gone.
Backpacking gear begins with
A shelter appropriate to expected conditions is typically next. Practical items not already mentioned - cook kit, stove, container for water, a means of purifying it - are characteristically but not always taken in some form. Depending on the trip ready-to-eat foods may suffice and suitable water be found along the way. More minimalist backpackers find ways to do with less.
Weight is always critical. A rule of thumb suggests a fully loaded backpack should weigh no more than 25% of a person's weight. Every single item is scrutinized, many removed the first time a pack is hefted. Lightweight gear is widely available, which may or may not sacrifice utility and durability but will almost always cost more. A wide variety of items utilizing carbon fiber, lightweight alloys, specialty plastics, and impregnated fabrics are available
Even in most seemingly pristine areas water needs treatment before consumption to protect against waterborne diseases carried by bacteria and protozoa. The chief treatment methods include:
Backpacking is energy intensive. It is essential enough food is taken to maintain both energy and health. As with gear, weight is critical. Consequently, items with high food energy, long shelf life, and low mass and volume deliver the most utility. Satisfaction is another consideration, of greater or lesser importance to all hikers. Only they can decide whether it's worth the effort (and trade-off against other gear) to carry fresh, heavy, or luxury food items. The shorter the trip and easier the conditions the more feasible such treats become.
Skills and safety
Survival skills can provide peace of mind and may make the difference between life and death when the weather, terrain, or environment turns unexpectedly for the worse.
Navigation and orienteering are useful to find the trailhead, then find and follow a route to a desired sequence of destinations, and then an exit. In case of disorientation, orienteering skills are important to determine the current location and formulate a route to somewhere more desirable.
At their most basic, navigation skills allow one to choose the correct sequence of trails to follow. In situations where a trail or clear line-of-sight to the desired destination is not present, navigation and orienteering allow the backpacker to understand the terrain and wilderness around them and, using their tools and practices, select the appropriate direction to hike. Weather (rain, fog, snow), terrain (hilly, rock faces, dense forest), and hiker experience can all impact and increase the challenges to navigation in the wilderness.
A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and then the other in rotation. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well.
Kayaks can also be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, maneuverability, stability and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, fiberglass, wood, plastic, fabrics, and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, and more recently expensive but feather light carbon fiber. Each material also has its specific advantage, including strength, durability, portability, flexibility, resistance to ultraviolet and storage requirements. For example, wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and easily transported and stored, and are considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats.
There are many types of kayaks used in flat water and whitewater kayaking. The sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on what type of water to be paddled on and also what the paddler would like to do. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the paddle blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water. These vary in length and also shape depending on the intended use, height of the paddler, and the paddler's preference. Kayaks should be equipped with one or more buoyancy aid (also called flotation) which creates air space that helps prevent a kayak from sinking when filled with water.
A life jacket should be worn at all times (also called a personal flotation device or PFD), and a helmet is also often required for most kayaking and is mandatory for white water kayaking. Various other pieces of safety gear include a whistle for signaling for help; throwing ropes to help rescue other kayakers; and, a diving knife and appropriate water shoes should used depending upon the risks the water and terrain pose. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wetsuit or spray top also help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures.
Types of kayaks
"Sit on top" kayaks place the paddler in an open, shallowly-concave deck above the water level. This style is usually used for non-white water activities as most find it harder to stay inside the kayak while also preventing them from "rolling" which allows the user to upright themselves if they flip over. There are some benefits to sit on tops such as the ability for a "dry hatch" these are a compartment, that usually runs the length of the kayak, which in addition to providing more buoyancy allows for the kayaker to store various equipment in. "Sit on top" kayaks often use "through holes" which allows any water that got in the boat to make it through the deck and dry hatch to drain.
"Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water-resistant seal around the waist. There is a wide range of "cockpit style" boats which usually allow for more user control of the boat as they are able to push against the walls of the boat to tip in order to complete maneuvers. A common variant of "cockpit style" kayaks are "play boats" these are usually very short kayaks in which the user does tricks and maneuvers:
"Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations; these boats have an open deck, but the paddler sits below the level of the deck. These boats are often subject to more instability due to the way the boat sits higher in the water. They are often used in a more commercial setting, they are often affectionately called "Duckies". "Tandems" are configured for multiple paddlers, in contrast to the single person designs featured by most kayaks. Tandems can be used by two or even three paddlers.
One of the most common uses of kayaks for hobbyists is whitewater kayaking. Whitewater kayaking is when a kayaker traverses down a series of rapids. The difficulty of these rapid ranges from Class I to Class VI. The difficulty of rapids often changes with water level and debris in the river. Debris that inhibits a kayaker's path are often called "strainers" as they "strain" out the kayakers like a colander. There are often training camps as well as man-made structures to help train kayakers.
Rollerblading or Inline skating is a multi-disciplinary sport and can refer to a number of activities practiced using inline skates. Inline skates typically have two to five polyurethane wheels depending on the style of practice, arranged in a single line by a metal or plastic frame on the underside of a boot. The in-line design allows for greater speed and maneuverability than traditional (or "quad") roller skates. Following this basic design principle, inline skates can be modified to varying degrees to accommodate niche disciplines.